In piping system, to connect pipes, valves, pumps and other equipment, flanges are used. Flanges provide easy access for inspection, modification or cleaning in a piping system. They are usually screwed or welded to join pipes, valves, pumps or other components.
Different types of standards are used for flanges in various countries. In the US flanges are made with ASME standards such as ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47, and MSS Sp-44. In Europe, flanges are manufactured with standard DIN EN 1092-1. This is similar to US standard but has a different name. Flanges are made as per the ISO Standard for materials and pressure ratings in the rest of the world.
The most common Types of Flanges used in Industry:
- Slip On Flange
- Weld Neck Flange
- Blind Flange
- Socket Weld Flange
- Threaded Flange
- Lap Joint Flange
Slip on Flange
Slip on flange is usually a ring plate that is placed over the pipe end. It moves freely on pipe, to make the connection between flange and pipe apply 2 fillet welds each on the inner side and outer side of the flange.
Weld Neck Flange
Weld neck flange classify into two designs. One is regular type is used with pipes and other is used in the process plant. It is consist of rounded fittings with a projecting rim around the circumference. These flanges used in aggressive environments that have high-temperature pressures or other sources of stress.
The Blind flange also called a solid flange because it is manufactured without bore. It is used to block the section of pipe or a nozzle that off no use. These flanges are suitable for low as well as higher temperature & pressure applications.
Socket Weld Flange
Socket Weld Flange mainly used for small size high-pressure piping. The connection between flange and pipe did with 1 fillet weld, at the outer side of flanges. But before welding some space should be provided between flange and pipe.
All of the above flanges cannot use without welding. For this reason, Threaded Flange where introduced. It is used for special purpose with the main benefit that they can be installed without welding. The connection between pipe and flange did with the threaded joint. These flanges are available in most sizes and pressure ratings.
Lap Joint Flange
Lap Joint flange does not have any raised face or pipe section; they are used with Lap Joint Stub Ends. These flanges are similar to slip on flanges, but it is used within conjunction with stub end. The pressure handling capacity is little but better than slip on flanges.
Some other Special Flanges
- Orifice Flanges
- Reducing Flanges
- Spectacle Blind Flanges
- Forged Flanges
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